Which is correct – ‘biologic’ or ‘biological’, ‘histologic’ or ‘histological’, ‘physiologic’ or ‘physiological’? Is there a difference or can these words be used interchangeably?
Opinions regarding the use of the –ic and –ical word endings are varied and conflicting, and this issue has been hotly debated in linguistics and lexicology (Kaunisto, 2007). In 1969, the linguist Hans Marchand promoted the use of the shorter ‘-ic’ form, stating that this form was more closely linked to the root meaning of the word because it is a derivative of the noun form, whereas the ‘-ical’ form is more loosely related because it is a derivative of the adjectival form and thus more general. The 18th century linguist James Elphinston argued that the ‘-ic’ form was used more for “solemn” subjects and the ‘-ical’ form, for more “familiar” subjects. This led Marchand to comment that the ‘-ic’ form is more common in science due to its conciseness. That is, “the scholar uses the unextended forms much more, as for him the quality expressed by the adjective is more directly and intimately connected with the thing to which it [the word] is applied than it is for a non-scientist” (as cited in Kaunisto 2007 p.25).
Communicating your experimental findings with others is your most important task as a scientist. You may make critical observations, develop ingenious hypotheses, design innovative experiments, and make important and novel discoveries – but if you cannot communicate your ideas and achievements to your colleagues, your career as a scientist will be at a standstill.
The number and quality of citations of your papers is increasingly being used as an index for promotions, grant review and funding, and tenure. Although this practice is somewhat controversial, having your work cited remains an important aspect of a scientist’s career. Consider these 5 simple tips below to increase the number of your citations and stand out among your peers.
Abbreviations: The use of abbreviations should make reading the article easier, not more difficult. Therefore, avoid using too many abbreviations because it will require that the reader refer to an earlier page for clarification. In general, abbreviations should be used at least 3 times or not at all. Abbreviations should be spelled out on first use in both the abstract and main text, and then used consistently thereafter. Check the Instructions to Authors to see if abbreviations used in the text must again be defined in the figure legends. The more general the journal's readership, the fewer the abbreviations.
The Take-Home message is the one, most critical piece of information that you want the reader to retain after reading your paper. The Take-Home message is what discriminates your paper from all of the others.